Hepatitis, HIV, and Hard Drugs … referrals by Alice B. Clagett ..

Revised 07/06/2017; new text is in green font

  • Hepatitis C and the Opioid Epidemic in the United States
  • Five Types of Hepatitis and Their Prevention or Treatment
  • The Opioid Overdose Epidemic in the United States
  • How Teens who Use Injection Drugs Can Get HIV and HCV
    Because Clean Syringes Can’t Be Obtained
  • Recommendations by the World Health Organization
    for HIV Prevention and Treatment
  • Disclosure on the HIV Pandemic and a Coverup by the CDC

………………………………………………………………………………………..
Hepatitis C and the Opioid Epidemic in the United States

Here is good info on Hepatitis C (HCV); apparently only 1% of cases are diagnosed. HCV incidence is increasing because of the expanding opioid epidemic in the US. HCV can lead to death; but if it is treated with antiviral meds, it can be cured in 90% of cases. The trick is to test for it in time …

Also, among injection drug users (IDUs), many have both HIV and HCV….

See “Public health surveillance system may underestimate cases of acute hepatitis C infection: Study of data gathered in Massachusetts indicates less than one percent of diagnosed cases met CDC reporting criteria”
http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/hivaids/who-risk-hiv-infection-which-populations-are-most-affected

Hepatitis C is considered to be a health problem throughout the globe. Worldwide, there are 170 million carriers. Every year, there are 3 or 4 million new cases. (1)

…………………………………………………………………………………………
Five Types of Hepatitis and Their Prevention or Treatment

There are five types of hepatitis; they are contracted in various ways. Hepatitis A and B can be prevented with vaccines; the United States is not at risk for these, but travelers to other countries are. (See maps below.)

Hepatitis C (1) is treatable with antiviral medications. Hepatitis D is treated with alpha interferon, and Hepatitis E is usually not treated, but resolves on its own; I’ve found no maps on these.

See “Hepatitis,”  http://www.healthline.com/health/hepatitis

For Hepatitis A, the geographic areas at risk appear to be Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Central and South America. (2)

For Hepatitis B, the geographic areas at risk appear to be Asia, the Middle East, Aftica, Greenland, Northern Canada and Alaska, northern South America, and Central America. (2)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
The Opioid Overdose Epidemic in the United States

“National Opioid Overdose Epidemic: Over 100 Americans died from overdose deaths EACH DAY in 2013,” http://www.asam.org/docs/default-source/advocacy/opioid-addiction-disease-facts-figures.pdf

…………………………………………………………………………………………….
How Teens Who Use Injection Drugs Can Get HIV and HCV
Because Clean Syringes Can’t Be Obtained

Teenagers can avoid pregnancy by using contraceptives. Using condoms helps them avoid STDs. Injection drug users who use clean syringes can avoid hepatitis and HIV transmission. But injection drug users often can’t obtain clean syringes, either because laws prevent it, or syringe sellers, won’t sell to them, even though it is legal. And so, teens may share syringes without a thought to safety. Or they may use bleach to clean them for reuse, and the cleaning may be insufficient. Or they may pay much more than is necessary to buy syringes on the black market. Or they may ask acquaintances who are diabetic to provide them with syringes. See https://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3102999.html#32

The latest UNAIDS figures for Adult HIV prevalence may found here: (3). The highest prevalence is in south Africa. Some of the lowest incidences are in southeast Asia. Most of South America, and all of Central America, Canada, and Australia are in the moderately low range. The United States, including Alaska, is in the mid range.

………………………………………………………………………………
Recommendations by the World Health Organization
for HIV Prevention and Treatment

WHO feels strongly that a good approach to HIV prevention and treatment is to work toward reduction of harm. WHO has come up with suggestions for needle and syringe programs. They also suggest opioid substitution therapy.

See “DrugFacts: HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: Intertwined Epidemics”
http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/hivaids-drug-abuse-intertwined-epidemics

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Disclosure on the HIV Pandemic and a Coverup by the Centers for Disease Control

My overview on the HIV Pandemic, and on data suppression by the Centers for Disease Control, is here: “Overview of the HIV Pandemic,” by Alice B. Clagett, http://wp.me/p2Rkym-5QE

Here is another of my overviews: “Overview of Surgical Risk, HIV, AIDS, Hepatitis, and Hard Drugs,” by Alice B. Clagett *, 17 October 2016, http://wp.me/p2Rkym-6gY ..

…………………………
FOOTNOTES

(1) See http://image.slidesharecdn.com/viral-hepatitis-a-b-c-d-e720/95/viral-hepatitis-a-b-c-d-e-44-728.jpg?cb=1287481692

(2) See http://www.who.int/ith/en/

(3) See http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/11/the-global-geography-of-hiv-20-years-of-change-in-1-gif/265706/

In love, light and joy, Alice B. Clagett
I Am of the Stars
…………………..

Creative Commons License
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

…………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………….

addictions, hard drugs, hepatitis, HIV, injection drug users, opioid epidemic, opioids, syringes, teen health, WHO

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s